studies

Scientific Studies on Essential Oils

Book: Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 4th Ed.
Authors: Price, S. & Price, L. (2007). 
Publisher: Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
Link: https://www.amazon.com/Aromatherapy-Health-Professionals-Price/dp/0702035645

Essential Oils, Sesquiterpenes, and 545 Research Articles
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30281175
Title: A systematic review on the neuroprotective perspectives of beta-caryophyllene.
Authors: Machado KDC, Islam MT, Ali ES, Rouf R, Uddin SJ, Dev S, Shilpi JA, Shill MC, Reza HM, Das AK, Shaw S, Mubarak MS, Mishra SK, Melo-Cavalcante AAC.
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
Date: 2018

Acne (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2145499
Title: A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.
Authors: Bassett, I. B., Pannowitz, D. L., & Barnetson, R. S.
Journal: Med J Aust, 153(8), 455-458.
Date: 1990

Antimicrobial
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360273/
Title: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: A review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties.
Authors: Carson, C. F., Hammer, K. A., & Riley, T. V.
Journal: Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19(1), 50-62.
Date: 2006

Autonomic Nervous System (Lavender)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812753
Title: The effect of foot bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system: A randomized trial.
Authors: Saeki, Y. 
Journal: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 8, 2-7.
Date: 2000

Bacteria (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30421144
Title: In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Commercially Available Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Essential Oils.
Authors: Brun P, Bernabè G, Filippini R, Piovan A.
Journal: Current Microbiology, pp 1-9
Date: 2018

Bacteria
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19226402
Title: Investigation of functional and morphological changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus cells induced by Origanum compactum essential oil.
Authors: Bouhdid, S, Abrini, J, Zhiri, A, Espuny, M & Manresa, A. 
Journal: Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(5), 1558-1568.
Date: 2009

Bacteria – Staph
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11073734
Title: Tea tree oil as an alternative topical decolonization agent for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.
Authors: Caelli, M., Porteous, J., Carlson, C. F., Heller, R., & Riley, T. V. (2001).
Journal: The Journal of Hospital Infection, 46, 236-237.
Date: 2000

Bacteria and Fungi (Black Spruce, Balsam Fir, Pine)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801172
Title: Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.
Authors: Poaty B, Lahlah J, Porqueres F, Bouafif H.
Journal: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31 (6), 907-919
Date: 2015

Bacteria – Staph

Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15960752
Full Study at Wiley Online Library: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01699.x
Title: Effects of a topical essential oil-containing formulation on biofilm-forming coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Authors: Al-Shuneigat, J., Cox, S. D., & Markham, J. L.
Journal: Letters in Applied Microbiology, 41(1), 52-55.
Date: 2005

Bacteria (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620445
Full Study: https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(04)00314-7/fulltext
Title: Assessment of the antibacterial activity of tea tree oil using the European EN 1276 and EN 12054 standard suspension tests.
Authors: Messager, S., Hammer, K. A., Carson, C. F., & Riley, T. V. 
Journal: Journal of Hospital Infection, 59(2), 113-125.
Date: 2005

Bacteria
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17134518
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils.
Authors: Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S.
Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Date: 2006

Bacteria
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12581376
Title: Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Authors: Burt, S. A.
Journal: Letters in Applied Microbiology 36, 162-7.
Date: 2003

Cancer
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30385373
Title: Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of citral: Optimization of citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) using experimental factorial design and LUMiSizer®.
Authors: Zielińska A, Martins-Gomes C, Ferreira NR, Silva AM, Nowak I, Souto EB.
Journal: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 553, Issues 1–2, Pages 428-440
Date: 2018

Cancer
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18753801
Title: Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.
Authors: Chang, SY.
Journal: Daehan Ganho Haghoeji, 38(4), 493-502.
Date: 2008

Candida
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21067604
Full Study at BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine: https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-10-65
Title: Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Candida albicans: Microscopic observations and chemical characterization of Cymbopogon citratus.
Authors: Tyagi A & Malik A.
Journal: BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 10, 65.
Date: 2010

Childbirth
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17506789
Title: Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Authors: Burns, E., Zobbi, V., Panzeri, D., Oskrochi, R., Regalia, A.
Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 114(7), 838-44.
Date: 2007

Chronic MRSA (Tea Tree and Eucalyptus)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC32179/
Title: Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic.
Authors: Sherry, E., Warnke, P. H.
Journal: BMC Surgery, 1(1).
Date: 2001

Colic (Fennel)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868253
Title: The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Volgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Authors: Alexandrovich, I., Rakovitskaya, O., Kolmo, E., Sidorova, T., Shushunov, S.
Journal: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9(4), 58-61.
Date: 2003

Dementia
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30200822
Title: Linalool odor stimulation improves heat stress tolerance and decreases fat accumulation in nematodes.
Authors: Hirano N, Sakamoto K.
Journal: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Date: 2018

Dementia (Lavender)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649945
Full Study at BMC Geriatrics: https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2318-10-49
Title: The study protocol of a blinded randomized-controleed cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia.
Authors: Van der Ploeg E, Eppingstall B & O’Connor D.
Journal: BMC Geriatrics, 10, 49.
Date: 2010

Dementia (Melissa)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12143909
Title: Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa.
Authors: Ballard, C.G., O’Brien, J.T., Reichelt, K., Perry, E.K. 
Journal: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 553-8.
Date: 2002

Dental: Anxiety in Dental Patients (Orange and Lavender)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16095639
Title: Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office.
Authors: Lehrner, J., Marwinski, G., Lehr, S., Johren, P., & Deecke, L.
Journal: Physiology & Behavior, 86(1-2), 92-95.
Date: 2005

Dental: Root Canals in Children
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29970638
Full Study: http://www.jisppd.com/article.asp?issn=0970-4388;year=2018;volume=36;issue=2;spage=191;epage=197;aulast=Ahirwar
Title: A clinical trial comparing antimicrobial efficacy of “essential oil of Ocimum sanctum” with triple antibiotic paste as an intracanal medicament in primary molars.
Authors: Ahirwar P, Shashikiran ND, Sundarraj RK, Singhla S, Thakur RA, Maran S.
Journal: Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 36, 2, 191-197
Date: 2018

Dental: Gingivitis (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15293818
Title: The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis.
Authors: Soukoulis, S., & Hirsch, R.
Journal: Australian Dental Journal, 49(2), 78-83.
Date: 2004

Dental: Plaque and Gingivitis
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684443
Title: Superiority of an essential oil mouthrinse when compared with a 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride containing mouthrinse: A six-month study.
Authors: Sharma S, Araujo M, Wu M, Qaqush J & Charles C.
Journal: International Dental Journal, 60(3), 175-80.
Date: 2010

Depression and Anxiety
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241490/
Title: An assessment of treating depression and anxiety with aromatherapy.
Authors: Lemon, K.
Journal: The International Journal of Aromatherapy, 14, 63-69.
Date: 2004

Diabetes

Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20487577
Title: Anti-diabetic effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) essential oil on glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in type 2 diabetic mice.
Authors: Chung, M, Cho, S, Bhuiyan, M, Kim, K & Lee, S.
Journal: British J of Nutrition, 104(2), 180-188.
Date: 2010

Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Arthritis (Copaiba)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30132972
Title: β-Caryophyllene, the major constituent of copaiba oil, reduces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in arthritic rats.
Authors: Ana P. Ames‐Sibin Camila L. Barizão Cristiane V. Castro‐Ghizoni Francielli M. S. Silva Anacharis B. Sá‐Nakanishi Lívia Bracht Ciomar A. Bersani‐Amado Maria R. Marçal‐Natali Adelar Bracht Jurandir F. Comar
Journal: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Date: 2018

GABA 

Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099651/
Title: Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases
Authors: Ze-Jun Wang and Thomas Heinbockel 
Journal: Molecules, MDPI
Date: May 2, 2018
Hand Warts on Children (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18940708
Title: Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia).
Authors: Millar, B & Moore, J.
Journal: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(4), 225-27.
Date: 2008

Head Lice 

Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062140
Full Study: https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article/10/1/185/887544
Title: Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capita.
Authors: Toloza A, Zygadlo J, Biurrun F, Rotman A & Picollo M. 
Journal: Journal of Insect Science, 10, 185.
Date: 2010

Head Lice (Tea Tree and Lavender)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20727129
Full Study at BMC Dermatology: https://bmcdermatol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-5945-10-6
Title: A randomized, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children – melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a “suffocation” product.
Authors: Barker, S & Altman P.
Journal: BMC Dermatology, 10, 6.
Date: 2010

Head Lice
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17442090
Title: A comparison of botanical and synthetic substances commonly used to prevent health lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation.
Authors: Canyon, D & Speare, R.
Journal: International Journal of Dermatology, 46(4), 422-426.
Date: 2007

Herpes (Sandalwood)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22192867
Full Study at Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711311005319?via%3Dihub
Title: Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2.
Author: Benencia, F. 
Journal: Phytomedicine, 6(2), 119-23.
Date: 1999

Hyperglycemic and Insulin Release Inhibitory (Rosemary)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7990497
Title: Hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects of rosmarinus officinalis.
Authors:Al-Hader, A.A., Hasan, Z.A., Aqel, M.B.
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 43, 217, 22.
Date: 1994

IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17420159
Title: Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
Authors: Cappello, G, Spezzaferro, M, Grossi, L, et al.
Journal: Digestive & Liver Disease, 39(6), 530-536.
Date: 2007

Inflammation and Cancer
Full Study Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49700974_Anti-inflammatory_and_anti-cancer_activities_of_essential_oils_and_their_biological_constituents
Title: Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of essential oils and their biological constituents.
Authors: Torres Salazar A, Hoheisel J, Youns M & Wink M.
Journal: International J of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 49(1), 93-95.
Date: 2011

Insect Repellents
Full Study Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189689/
Title: Essential Oils as Repellents against Arthropods
Author: Mi Young Lee
Study Supported by Soonchunhyang University
Date: 2018

Midwifery Practice
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784271
Title: An investigation into the use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery Practice.
Authors: Burns, E., Blamey, C., Ersser, S. J., Barnetson, L., & Lloyd, A. 
Journal: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6(2), 141-7.
Date: 2000

Mosquito Repellent (Lemongrass)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12046869
Title: Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from Lemongrass oil.
Authors: Oyedele, A. O., Gbolade, A. A., Sosan, M.B., Adewoyin, F. B., Soyelu, O.L., & Orafidiya, O. O.
Journal: Phytomedicine, 9, 259-62.
Date: 2002

Mouth Yeast (Tea Tree)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16488180
Full Study at Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1368837505002861?via%3Dihub
Title: Susceptibility to melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil of yeasts isolated from the mouths of patients with advanced cancer.
Authors: Bagg, J., Jackson, M. S., Petrina Sweeney, M., Ramage, G., & Davies, A. N. 
Journal: Oral Oncology, 42(5), 487-492.
Date: 2006

Nursing
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17353823
Title: Literature review: should nursing take aromatherapy more seriously?
Buckle, J.
Journal: British Journal of Nursing, 16(2), 116-120.
Year: 2007

Oral Pathogens
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14678476
Title: A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens.
Authors: Takarada, R. et al. (2004).
Journal: Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 19, 61-64.

Oral Pathogens (Rosemary)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138060
Title: Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis and its major components against oral pathogens.
Authors: Bernardes W, Lucarini R, Tozatti M, Flauzino L, Souza M, Turatti I, Andrade e Silva M, martins C, da Silva Filho A & Cunha W.
Journal: Journal of Biosciences; 65(9-10):588-93.
Date: 2010

Pain Management
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30423839
Title: Aromatherapy for Managing Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.
Authors: Lee MS, Lee HW, Khalil M, Lim HS, Lim HJ.
Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(11), 434
Date: 2018

Postoperative Nausea (Peppermint)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14770380
Title: Aromatherapy with peppermint, isopropyl alcohol, or placebo is equally effective in relieving postoperative nausea.
Authors: Anderson, L., Gross, J.
Journal: Journal of Peri-Anesthesia Nursing, 19(1), 29-35.
Date: 2004

Post-Operative Pain
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17129308
Title: Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating post-operative pain: pilot study.
Authors: Kim J, Wajda M, Cuff G, Serota D, Schlame M, Axelrod DM, Guth AA, Bekker AY.
Journal: Pain Practice, 6(4), 273-277.
Date: 2006

Rheumatism (Ginger)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1494322
Title: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Rheumatism and Musculoskeletal Disorders.
Authors: Srivasta, K. C., Mustafa, T.
Journal: Medical Hypotheses, 39, 342-8.
Date: 1992

Smoking Cessation Treatment and Withdrawal Symptoms (Black Pepper)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8033760
Title: Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduced smoking withdrawal symptoms.
Authors: Rose, J. E. & Behm, F. M. 
Journal: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 34, 225-9.
Date: 1994

Social Aversion (Lavender)
Abstract Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30347669
Title: Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil and Linalool Counteract Social Aversion Induced by Social Defeat.
Authors: Lucia Caputo, Marina D. Reguilon, José Mińarro, Vincenzo De Feo, and Marta Rodriguez-Arias
Journal: Molecules, 23 (10), 2694
Date: 2018